中国开创性的月球车在月球背面发现了近40英尺的尘埃
China's groundbreaking lunar rover found nearly 40 feet of dust on the far side of the moon

China's groundbreaking lunar rover found nearly 40 feet of dust on the far side of the moon

中国开创性的月球车在月球背面发现了近40英尺的尘埃

2019年1月,中国将一艘名为“嫦娥四号”的宇宙飞船发射到月球背面,成为首个实现这一目标的国家。月球车已经测量了一层“相当厚”的月球尘埃或风化层:深度达12米(39英尺)。月球的尘埃给阿波罗任务带来了麻烦,更好地了解月球尘埃可以帮助未来的宇宙飞船。

第一个访问月球背面的探测器发现了一层12米(39英尺)深的月球尘埃。

月球车和它的着陆器位于月球的Von Krmn环形山,是中国嫦娥四号任务的一部分。他们于2019年1月3日登陆月球,这是第一次有航天器在月球背面着陆而没有坠毁。

探测器首次用雷达测量了月球表面的尘埃,来自中国和意大利的研究人员在《科学进步》杂志周三发表的一篇论文中描述了这一结果。

月球尘埃,也被称为风化层,是一种类似滑石粉的物质,由数十亿年前小行星撞击月球表面后沉淀下来的岩石和尘埃组成。“嫦娥四号”的发现证实,这种尘埃也覆盖在月球的远端,科学家称其为“相当厚”的一层。

研究报告的作者写道:“这项工作表明,广泛使用‘嫦娥四号’雷达可以极大地提高我们对月球撞击和火山活动历史的理解,并可能为理解月球远侧的地质演化带来新的曙光。”

这种理解将是未来月球任务的关键。当航天器接近月球表面时,月球尘埃会使航天器上的仪器蒙上一层云,从而增加失败的风险。

风化层以前也造成过问题

宇航员佩吉·惠特森在太空中生活了665天,她曾告诉商业内幕网,阿波罗任务“有很多灰尘问题”。

惠特森说:“如果我们要花很长时间来建造永久性的栖息地,我们必须找到解决办法。”

布莱恩·奥布莱恩是一位物理学家,他设计了伴随阿波罗11号宇航员的风化层测量装置,他告诉《连线》杂志,他怀疑灰尘干扰了地震仪,并在这次任务中阻挡了太阳能电池。

1969年7月20日阿波罗11号登月时,一位宇航员在月球土壤上的脚印。

美国航天局

对月球表面风化层的测量可以帮助未来的航天器避免这些问题。

“我们将拥有的一些新发动机类型和推力水平,我们真的不明白它将如何在月球的不同位置激起不同种类的风化层,”9月份,美国宇航局机器人月球任务的航空航天工程师艾丽西娅·德怀尔·齐恩乔洛告诉《大西洋月刊》。

中国嫦娥四号在月球背面的一个古老陨石坑内着陆。

夏安·加尔/商业内幕

在39英尺厚的细尘层下,“嫦娥四号”探测器还发现了一层充满岩石的粗物质,接着是40米深的粗物质和细物质交替层。

尽管中国还没有公布剩余任务的具体时间表,但这些机器人在月球背面的目标是拍摄贫瘠的景观照片,研究月球地质,寻找水冰,扫描夜空,寻找无线电脉冲。

China landed a spacecraft called Chang'e 4 on the moon's far side in January 2019 the first country ever to do so.The rover has measured a layer of lunar dust, or regolith , that's "quite thick": It extends 12 meters (39 feet) deep.The moon's dust caused problems for the Apollo missions, and understanding it better could help future spacecraft.

The first rover ever to visit the far side of the moon has discovered a layer of lunar dust up to 12 meters (39 feet) deep.

The rover and its lander, which sits in the moon's Von Krmn crater , are part of China's Chang'e-4 mission. Their landing there on January 3, 2019 marked the first time any spacecraft had ever visited the far side of the moon without crashing.

The rover measured the moon's surface dust with radar for the first time, and researchers from China and Italy described the results in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances.

Lunar dust, also called regolith, is a talc-like substance of pulverized rock and dust that settled after asteroids bombarded the moon's surface billions of years ago. The Chang'e 4 findings confirm that this dust also coats the far side of the moon, in a layer that the scientists described as "quite thick."

"This work shows that the extensive use of the [Chang'e 4 radar] could greatly improve our understanding of the history of lunar impact and volcanism and could shed new light on the comprehension of the geological evolution of the moon's far side," the study authors wrote.

That understanding will be key for future missions to the moon. Lunar dust can cloud a spacecraft's instruments as it approaches the moon's surface, raising the risk of failure.

Regolith has caused problems before

Peggy Whitson , an astronaut who lived in space for a total of 665 days, previously told Business Insider that the Apollo missions "had a lot of problems with dust."

"If we're going to spend long durations and build permanent habitats, we have to figure out how to handle that," Whitson said.

Brian O'Brien, a physicist who designed the regolith-measuring device that accompanied the Apollo 11 astronauts, told Wired that he suspects dust interfered with a seismometer and blocked solar cells on that mission.

A close-up view of an astronaut's boot print in the lunar soil during the Apollo 11 moon landing of July 20, 1969.

NASA

Regolith measurements across the moon's surface could help future spacecraft avoid those problems.

"Some of the new engine types and the thrust levels that we will have we really don't understand how it will stir up the different kinds of regolith in different locations on the moon," Alicia Dwyer Cianciolo, an aerospace engineer working on NASA's robotic moon missions, told The Atlantic in September.

China landed its Chang'e 4 lunar mission inside an ancient crater located on the far side of the moon.

Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

Below the 39 feet of fine dust, the Chang'e 4 rover also found a layer of coarse material full of rocks, followed by alternating layers of coarse and fine substances up to 40 meters (131 feet) deep.

Though China has not shared a specific timeline for the rest of the mission, the robots' goals on the moon's far side are to take photos of the barren landscape, study lunar geology, look for water ice, and scan the night sky for radio bursts.

China landed a spacecraft called Chang'e 4 on the moon's far side in January 2019 the first country ever to do so.The rover has measured a layer of lunar dust, or regolith , that's "quite thick": It extends 12 meters (39 feet) deep.The moon's dust caused problems for the Apollo missions, and understanding it better could help future spacecraft.

2019年1月,中国将一艘名为“嫦娥四号”的宇宙飞船发射到月球背面,成为首个实现这一目标的国家。月球车已经测量了一层“相当厚”的月球尘埃或风化层:深度达12米(39英尺)。月球的尘埃给阿波罗任务带来了麻烦,更好地了解月球尘埃可以帮助未来的宇宙飞船。

The first rover ever to visit the far side of the moon has discovered a layer of lunar dust up to 12 meters (39 feet) deep.

第一个访问月球背面的探测器发现了一层12米(39英尺)深的月球尘埃。

The rover and its lander, which sits in the moon's Von Krmn crater , are part of China's Chang'e-4 mission. Their landing there on January 3, 2019 marked the first time any spacecraft had ever visited the far side of the moon without crashing.

月球车和它的着陆器位于月球的Von Krmn环形山,是中国嫦娥四号任务的一部分。他们于2019年1月3日登陆月球,这是第一次有航天器在月球背面着陆而没有坠毁。

The rover measured the moon's surface dust with radar for the first time, and researchers from China and Italy described the results in a paper published Wednesday in the journal Science Advances.

探测器首次用雷达测量了月球表面的尘埃,来自中国和意大利的研究人员在《科学进步》杂志周三发表的一篇论文中描述了这一结果。

Lunar dust, also called regolith, is a talc-like substance of pulverized rock and dust that settled after asteroids bombarded the moon's surface billions of years ago. The Chang'e 4 findings confirm that this dust also coats the far side of the moon, in a layer that the scientists described as "quite thick."

月球尘埃,也被称为风化层,是一种类似滑石粉的物质,由数十亿年前小行星撞击月球表面后沉淀下来的岩石和尘埃组成。“嫦娥四号”的发现证实,这种尘埃也覆盖在月球的远端,科学家称其为“相当厚”的一层。

"This work shows that the extensive use of the [Chang'e 4 radar] could greatly improve our understanding of the history of lunar impact and volcanism and could shed new light on the comprehension of the geological evolution of the moon's far side," the study authors wrote.

研究报告的作者写道:“这项工作表明,广泛使用‘嫦娥四号’雷达可以极大地提高我们对月球撞击和火山活动历史的理解,并可能为理解月球远侧的地质演化带来新的曙光。”

That understanding will be key for future missions to the moon. Lunar dust can cloud a spacecraft's instruments as it approaches the moon's surface, raising the risk of failure.

这种理解将是未来月球任务的关键。当航天器接近月球表面时,月球尘埃会使航天器上的仪器蒙上一层云,从而增加失败的风险。

Regolith has caused problems before

风化层以前也造成过问题

Peggy Whitson , an astronaut who lived in space for a total of 665 days, previously told Business Insider that the Apollo missions "had a lot of problems with dust."

宇航员佩吉·惠特森在太空中生活了665天,她曾告诉商业内幕网,阿波罗任务“有很多灰尘问题”。

"If we're going to spend long durations and build permanent habitats, we have to figure out how to handle that," Whitson said.

惠特森说:“如果我们要花很长时间来建造永久性的栖息地,我们必须找到解决办法。”

Brian O'Brien, a physicist who designed the regolith-measuring device that accompanied the Apollo 11 astronauts, told Wired that he suspects dust interfered with a seismometer and blocked solar cells on that mission.

布莱恩·奥布莱恩是一位物理学家,他设计了伴随阿波罗11号宇航员的风化层测量装置,他告诉《连线》杂志,他怀疑灰尘干扰了地震仪,并在这次任务中阻挡了太阳能电池。

A close-up view of an astronaut's boot print in the lunar soil during the Apollo 11 moon landing of July 20, 1969.

1969年7月20日阿波罗11号登月时,一位宇航员在月球土壤上的脚印。

NASA

美国航天局

Regolith measurements across the moon's surface could help future spacecraft avoid those problems.

对月球表面风化层的测量可以帮助未来的航天器避免这些问题。

"Some of the new engine types and the thrust levels that we will have we really don't understand how it will stir up the different kinds of regolith in different locations on the moon," Alicia Dwyer Cianciolo, an aerospace engineer working on NASA's robotic moon missions, told The Atlantic in September.

“我们将拥有的一些新发动机类型和推力水平,我们真的不明白它将如何在月球的不同位置激起不同种类的风化层,”9月份,美国宇航局机器人月球任务的航空航天工程师艾丽西娅·德怀尔·齐恩乔洛告诉《大西洋月刊》。

China landed its Chang'e 4 lunar mission inside an ancient crater located on the far side of the moon.

中国嫦娥四号在月球背面的一个古老陨石坑内着陆。

Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

夏安·加尔/商业内幕

Below the 39 feet of fine dust, the Chang'e 4 rover also found a layer of coarse material full of rocks, followed by alternating layers of coarse and fine substances up to 40 meters (131 feet) deep.

在39英尺厚的细尘层下,“嫦娥四号”探测器还发现了一层充满岩石的粗物质,接着是40米深的粗物质和细物质交替层。

Though China has not shared a specific timeline for the rest of the mission, the robots' goals on the moon's far side are to take photos of the barren landscape, study lunar geology, look for water ice, and scan the night sky for radio bursts.

尽管中国还没有公布剩余任务的具体时间表,但这些机器人在月球背面的目标是拍摄贫瘠的景观照片,研究月球地质,寻找水冰,扫描夜空,寻找无线电脉冲。