有“消音”鳞片的飞蛾可以躲避蝙蝠的回声定位
Moths with 'noise-cancelling' scales can hide from bats' echolocation

Moths with 'noise-cancelling' scales can hide from bats' echolocation

有“消音”鳞片的飞蛾可以躲避蝙蝠的回声定位

科学家发现,一些失聪的蛾子会在身上涂上“消音”的鳞片,以避免被捕食者发现。这些毛发状的生长物可以吸收“来自蝙蝠85%的声音能量”,相当于一种“生物隐形涂层”。

研究人员称,发表在《英国皇家学会界面》上的研究结果表明,不能听到蝙蝠超声波叫声的蛾子为了生存,进化出了这种“另类防御策略”。他们认为,对这些所谓的消声标度有更多的了解,可以帮助科学家开发出吸收声音的新技术。

研究助理托马斯•尼尔博士从布里斯托尔大学生物科学学院的在研究中,作者说:“我们惊讶地发现,这些非凡的昆虫能够达到同样水平的吸声商用技术声音吸收,而在同一时间被更薄更轻。

“我们现在正在研究如何利用这些生物系统来激发隔音技术的新解决方案,并分析飞蛾翅膀上的积垢,以探索它们是否也具有吸音性能。”

蝙蝠在夜间利用回声定位来捕食,利用声波和回声来确定猎物的位置。夜间活动的昆虫,包括许多飞蛾类,在进化过程中能够听到蝙蝠发出的超声波,而其他昆虫,如聋蛾,则不能。

来自布里斯托尔大学的研究小组研究了两种失聪的蛾子,一种是苏雷卡(Antherina suraka),另一种是普罗米修斯(Callosamia promethean)。他们发现这两种飞蛾体内的鳞片在结构上与隔音技术中使用的纤维相似。

然后,研究人员对这些昆虫使用了一种称为声学断层扫描的技术,将它们暴露在通过扬声器发出的超声波脉冲中,并测量从它们体内反射回来的回声的强度。

他们发现这些鳞片吸收了多达85%的传入声能。研究结果还显示,这种鳞片能够“将蝙蝠发现飞蛾的距离缩短近25%”。

研究人员说,这些保护性的鳞片使蛾子的生存机会“显著增加”。

这项研究由生物技术与生物科学研究委员会(BBSRC)和工程与物理科学研究委员会(EPSRC)资助。

读者提问:如果蝙蝠是盲人,它们为什么有眼睛?

问:Leslie Finch, Llandysul

尽管有这个著名的成语,蝙蝠并不是瞎子。所有的蝙蝠都依靠视觉来寻找食物,躲避捕食者,进出栖息地。正如夜行性哺乳动物所预料的那样,它们的眼睛里充满了被称为视杆细胞的光感受器细胞,这使它们在黑暗中视觉的能力最大化。

然而,在晚上,大多数蝙蝠利用回声定位来寻找发出超声波的猎物,并倾听回声。所以蝙蝠可以用它们的眼睛和耳朵来“看”。

Some species of deaf moths use "noise-cancelling" scales on their bodies to avoid being detected by predators, scientists have found. These hair-like growths can absorb "as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy from bats", acting as a type of "biological stealth coating".

The researchers say their findings, published in Royal Society Interface, indicate moths unable to hear the ultrasonic calls of bats evolved this "alternative defensive strategy" for survival. They believe understanding more about these so-called noise-cancelling scales could help scientists develop new technologies for absorbing sound.

Dr Thomas Neil, a research associate from University of Bristol's School of Biological Sciences and lead author on the study, said: "We were amazed to see that these extraordinary insects were able to achieve the same levels of sound absorption as commercially available technical sound absorbers, whilst at the same time being much thinner and lighter.

"We are now looking at ways in which we can use these biological systems to inspire new solutions to sound insulating technology and analyse the scaling on a moth's wing to explore whether they too have sound absorbing properties."

Bats hunt at night using echolocation, where they use sound waves and echoes to determine the location of their prey. While nocturnal insects, including many moth species, evolved to hear the ultrasonic calls of bats, others, such as deaf moths, didn't.

The team from the University of Bristol looked at two species of deaf moths the Antherina suraka and the Callosamia promethean. They discovered the scales in the bodies of both these moths looked structurally similar to the fibres used in soundproofing technology.

The researchers then used a technique called acoustic tomography on the insects, which involved exposing them to ultrasound pulses through a loudspeaker and measuring the strength of the echoes that bounced back from their bodies.

They found these scales absorbed as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy. The findings also showed the scales' ability to "reduce the distance a bat would be able to detect a moth by almost 25 per cent".

These protective scales, the researchers said, gives the moths "a significant increase" in its chances of survival.

The study was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

Reader Q&A: If bats are blind, why do they have eyes?

Asked by: Leslie Finch, Llandysul

Despite the famous idiom, bats aren't blind. All bats rely on sight to find food, avoid predators and navigate to and from roosts. As expected in a nocturnal mammal, their eyes are heavily loaded with photoreceptor cells called rods, which maximise their ability to see in the dark.

At night, however, most bats use echolocation to find prey sending out ultrasonic sound waves and listening for the echoes. So bats can 'see' with both their eyes and their ears.

Some species of deaf moths use "noise-cancelling" scales on their bodies to avoid being detected by predators, scientists have found. These hair-like growths can absorb "as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy from bats", acting as a type of "biological stealth coating".

科学家发现,一些失聪的蛾子会在身上涂上“消音”的鳞片,以避免被捕食者发现。这些毛发状的生长物可以吸收“来自蝙蝠85%的声音能量”,相当于一种“生物隐形涂层”。

The researchers say their findings, published in Royal Society Interface, indicate moths unable to hear the ultrasonic calls of bats evolved this "alternative defensive strategy" for survival. They believe understanding more about these so-called noise-cancelling scales could help scientists develop new technologies for absorbing sound.

研究人员称,发表在《英国皇家学会界面》上的研究结果表明,不能听到蝙蝠超声波叫声的蛾子为了生存,进化出了这种“另类防御策略”。他们认为,对这些所谓的消声标度有更多的了解,可以帮助科学家开发出吸收声音的新技术。

Dr Thomas Neil, a research associate from University of Bristol's School of Biological Sciences and lead author on the study, said: "We were amazed to see that these extraordinary insects were able to achieve the same levels of sound absorption as commercially available technical sound absorbers, whilst at the same time being much thinner and lighter.

研究助理托马斯•尼尔博士从布里斯托尔大学生物科学学院的在研究中,作者说:“我们惊讶地发现,这些非凡的昆虫能够达到同样水平的吸声商用技术声音吸收,而在同一时间被更薄更轻。

"We are now looking at ways in which we can use these biological systems to inspire new solutions to sound insulating technology and analyse the scaling on a moth's wing to explore whether they too have sound absorbing properties."

“我们现在正在研究如何利用这些生物系统来激发隔音技术的新解决方案,并分析飞蛾翅膀上的积垢,以探索它们是否也具有吸音性能。”

Bats hunt at night using echolocation, where they use sound waves and echoes to determine the location of their prey. While nocturnal insects, including many moth species, evolved to hear the ultrasonic calls of bats, others, such as deaf moths, didn't.

蝙蝠在夜间利用回声定位来捕食,利用声波和回声来确定猎物的位置。夜间活动的昆虫,包括许多飞蛾类,在进化过程中能够听到蝙蝠发出的超声波,而其他昆虫,如聋蛾,则不能。

The team from the University of Bristol looked at two species of deaf moths the Antherina suraka and the Callosamia promethean. They discovered the scales in the bodies of both these moths looked structurally similar to the fibres used in soundproofing technology.

来自布里斯托尔大学的研究小组研究了两种失聪的蛾子,一种是苏雷卡(Antherina suraka),另一种是普罗米修斯(Callosamia promethean)。他们发现这两种飞蛾体内的鳞片在结构上与隔音技术中使用的纤维相似。

The researchers then used a technique called acoustic tomography on the insects, which involved exposing them to ultrasound pulses through a loudspeaker and measuring the strength of the echoes that bounced back from their bodies.

然后,研究人员对这些昆虫使用了一种称为声学断层扫描的技术,将它们暴露在通过扬声器发出的超声波脉冲中,并测量从它们体内反射回来的回声的强度。

They found these scales absorbed as much as 85 per cent of the incoming sound energy. The findings also showed the scales' ability to "reduce the distance a bat would be able to detect a moth by almost 25 per cent".

他们发现这些鳞片吸收了多达85%的传入声能。研究结果还显示,这种鳞片能够“将蝙蝠发现飞蛾的距离缩短近25%”。

These protective scales, the researchers said, gives the moths "a significant increase" in its chances of survival.

研究人员说,这些保护性的鳞片使蛾子的生存机会“显著增加”。

The study was funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).

这项研究由生物技术与生物科学研究委员会(BBSRC)和工程与物理科学研究委员会(EPSRC)资助。

Reader Q&A: If bats are blind, why do they have eyes?

读者提问:如果蝙蝠是盲人,它们为什么有眼睛?

Asked by: Leslie Finch, Llandysul

问:Leslie Finch, Llandysul

Despite the famous idiom, bats aren't blind. All bats rely on sight to find food, avoid predators and navigate to and from roosts. As expected in a nocturnal mammal, their eyes are heavily loaded with photoreceptor cells called rods, which maximise their ability to see in the dark.

尽管有这个著名的成语,蝙蝠并不是瞎子。所有的蝙蝠都依靠视觉来寻找食物,躲避捕食者,进出栖息地。正如夜行性哺乳动物所预料的那样,它们的眼睛里充满了被称为视杆细胞的光感受器细胞,这使它们在黑暗中视觉的能力最大化。

At night, however, most bats use echolocation to find prey sending out ultrasonic sound waves and listening for the echoes. So bats can 'see' with both their eyes and their ears.

然而,在晚上,大多数蝙蝠利用回声定位来寻找发出超声波的猎物,并倾听回声。所以蝙蝠可以用它们的眼睛和耳朵来“看”。